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Physical Gbege

Waka abroad pipu dey try to reach Europe from Nigeria for many ogbonge ways, such as hiding in trucks or boats, leaving dem helpless and wey dey expose dem to physical ogbonge problems. Waka abroad pipu dey often hear from smugglers say de journey to Europe go dey safe and easy, but in fact smugglers dey put waka abroad pipu for serious ogbonge chance of abuse and exploitation.

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De most common route wey many irregular waka abroad pipu dey take try to reach Europe from Nigeria na to travel thru de desert to Libya and from dere to find a way to cross de Mediterranean Sea to Europe. For overland routes, many dey suffocate or dem dey become overcome by fumes, or dem dey abandoned with vehicle wey don break down before dem complete deir waka.

Waka abroad pipu wey dey try to reach Europe dey usually loaded inside overcrowded boats wey no good to dey for sea, or for inside unsafe parts of vehicle wey no dey fit to carry passengers. According to de International Organization for Migration (IOM), na ova 2,000 waka abroad pipu wey die, most by drowning, while dem dey try to reach de shores of Europe for 2018. For de overland part of deir waka, either dem dey cross de Sahara to a transit country like Libya or if dem dey try to pass thru make dem no catch dem thru European kountries, many pipu dey suffocate or dem dey be overcome by fumes. Some dey abandoned with broken-down vehicles before dem finish deir waka, and sometimes dem dey live dem to die for inside desert with no hope of rescue.

Waka abroad pipu dey often exploited and abused by smugglers for deir waka to Europe, most commonly for Libya. Smugglers dey lie to new pipu wey fit be waka abroad candidate say de journey dey shorter or safer dan it really be, or dem dey talk am like say it dey sure say dem fit grant dem asylum for \europe.

Smugglers dey known say dem dey sell pipu to oda gangs or kidnap waka abroad pipu for ransom or dey force pipu to work against deir will and for no money. Kidnapping and torture dey happen often to collect money from families wey dey house. Once an irregular waka abroad persin don leave deir network of family and friends behind, de smuggler know say de waka abroad persin dey exposed to exploitation.

Smugglers dey often ask for money for each stage of de waka but if de waka abroad persin no get money again, dem fit force am to work as slave so dat he go need to pay de smugglers. Men dey usually expected to do hard manual labour, and women dey most times forced to work as prostitutes. Afta de 2017 CNN video of slave auctions for Libya, reports don continue to komot about migrants being sold by smugglers for slave markets across de country.

De Sahara Desert na big place wey no get government and where criminal gangs and robbers dey often attack and kidnap waka abroad pipu or dey collect deir belongings.

De journey thru de desert fit take weeks. De terrain dey difficult, and de temperatures dey so high during de day dat moto dey sometimes break down. Wen a moto break down or a driver lost, waka abroad pipu fit die of hunger, thirst or heatstroke. To make dem profit plenty, de smugglers dey pack plenty waka abroad pipu for inside de moto, and dis dey make de conditions more dangerous.

Nigerians wey dey cross de desert dey extremely exposed to not only bad treatment by de smugglers wey dem dey rely on to get dem to deir destination but also to kidnap.

Waka abroad pipu dey plenty times talk say dem pass dead bodi for the waka thru de desert, and dere don be plenty official report of hundreds of dead body wey dem find for inside de Sahara.

It dey likely say dem be even more irregular waka abroad pipu wey dey die for inside de Sahara Desert pass de Mediterranean Sea.

Waka abroad pipu wey dey try to reach Europe from Nigeria have to cross de Sahara Desert. De Sahara Desert na big and large place wey no get government and where criminal gangs and robbers dey attack and kidnap waka abroad pipu or take deir money and wetin dem get.

De waka thru de desert fit take weeks. De place dey difficult and de temperatures dey so high for daytime dat motors dey break down sometimes. Wen a moto break down or driver lost, waka abroad pipu fit die of hunger, thirst or heatstroke. For make dem make more money, smugglers dey pack as many waka abroad pipu as dem fit pack for inside de moto, wey dey make de conditions more dangerous.

Waka abroad pipu dey plenty times talk say dem pass dead bodi for the waka thru de desert, and dere don be plenty official report of hundreds of dead body wey dem find for inside de Sahara. It dey likely say dem be even more irregular waka abroad pipu wey dey die for inside de Sahara Desert pass de Mediterranean Sea.

Crossing de Nigerian part of de Sahara Desert dey take about four days. Waka abroad pipu dey exposed to many risks during de crossing, plus include being abandoned in de desert by smugglers. Since de implementation of an anti-smuggling law for 2016 wey criminalize de transport of waka abroad pipu, it don become harder to cross de Sahara Desert in Niger as security forces don crack down on pipu smugglers.

Travelling thru Algeria dey very dangerious. Algeria get a law wey criminalize irregular waka abroad. If dem find persin guilty, irregular waka persins fit face up to five years for prison. Ova 25,000 waka abroad pipu dey expelled from Algeria to Niger for 2018. Dis include 14,000 Naija nationals wey dem return to Niger and anoda 11,000 nationals of oda sub-Saharan African countries who dem leave for de Naija border in de desert without any support.

Even if dem no arrest waka abroad pipu, reports don show say between 2017 and 2018, de Algerian authorities dey regularly abandon sub-Saharan African waka abroad pipu for de Sahara. Waka abroad pipu dey expected to waka long distance for inside de heat in order make dem find safety, shelter, food and water.

Sub-Saharan Africa waka abroad pipu of various nationalities don report say de Algerian authorities don raid areas where dem sabi say waka abroad pipu dey live for inside de country. Dem dey arrest waka abroad pipu for de street or for construction sites and dem dey expel dem en masse at de border with Niger or Mali, and for most instances with no food and little water. Dese waka abroad pipu talk say dem force dem to march for dozens of kilometres for de desert, in high temperature, before dem reach town where dem find assistance or private transport.

Libya be very unstable state wit no single recognised government. Militia groups dey often kidnap waka abroad pipu and hold dem hostage. It dey common for militia groups to torture hostages and demand a ransom from deir relatives in deir home countries. Irregular migrants in Libya dey very vulnerable and many sources don establish dat waka abroad pipu dey likely to face de possibility of kidnapping, torture, slavery, rape and murder while dem dey Libya.

Many waka abroad pipu talk say dem underestimate de hardships dem go face for Libya and dat crossing de Sahara Desert for Libya na de worst part of de journey. Research for de experience of West African waka abroad pipu for Libya show say na more half wey don suffer physical assaults. For inside a report from Oxfam, for out of 31 women wey dey interviewed for Libya, 30 talk say dem don rape dem.

For 2018, dere be ova around 600,000 waka abroad pipu for Libya. Ova 9,000 waka broad pipu dey held in official detention centres, while thousands more dey detained by armed groups for unofficial centres, according to de International Organization for Migration (IOM).

Spain be the leading destination for irregular waka abroad pipu for 2018, and most dey come ova de Mediterranean Sea via Morocco. According to de IOM, de country don receive more irregular waka abroad pipu thru de Mediterranean Sea in 2018 dan it did thruout 2015, 2016 and 2017 combine. Local authorities no carry power reach wey dem go take deal wit dat kain amount of waka abroad pipu and many of de waka abroad pipu dey end up to stay for inside overcrowded centres.

Since July 2018 Morroco authorities don dey carry out raids for neighbourhoods wey get large waka abroad populations for thruout de country. A report wey dem release by Amnesty International talk say na about nearly 5,000 pipu dem don catch for inside de raids since July 2018, wey dem pack inside bus and wey dem abandon for remote areas close to de Algerian border or for de South of de country, according to de Moroccan Association for Human Rights (AMDH).

For inside attempt to cross de dangerous sea crossing between Morocco and de European mainland, waka abroad pipu dey increase deir attempt to jump de heavily guarded border fence for Ceuta wey dey de Moroccan-Spanish border. Many don get injury by de razor wire fences.

Even if waka abroad pipu make it ova de barrier that separate Morocco from Spain, it dey possible dat dem go be returned directly by de Spanish authorities. Dere don be reports of waka abroad pipu wey dem return to Morocco very soon afta dem force demselves to enter Spain.

Libya is a very unstable state where militia groups often kidnap migrants and hold them hostage. It is common for militia groups to torture hostages and demand a ransom from their relatives in their home countries.

Many migrants say that they underestimated the hardships they would face in Libya and that crossing the Sahara Desert in Libya was the worst part of the journey. Research by Seefar on the experience of West African migrants in Libya revealed that more than half had suffered physical assaults. In a report from Oxfam, out of 31 women interviewed in Libya, 30 said they had been raped.

In 2018, there were over around 600,000 migrants in Libya and over 9,000 migrants were being held in official detention centres, while thousands more were detained by armed groups in unofficial centres, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM).

Since 2014, 17,482 migrants don die as dem dey try to cross de Mediterranean Sea. For de first few months of 2018 one in everi 14 waka abroad persins died as dem dey try to cross de sea from Libya to Italy. Border control operations don limit de numba of irregular waka abroad pipu wey fit hide to pass across de Mediterranean Sea. Smugglers dey often lie about de length of de waka and de condition and correctness of de waka boats.

Since dem don strengthen de Libyan Coast Guard, waka abroad pipu who dey try to cross de Mediterranean irregularly dey more likely to be caught and returned to Libya by de authorities. From January 2017 to September 2018, de Libyan coastguard catch and return by force more dan 29,000 pipu. Many end up for detention centres or disappear completely.

Since early 2019 de EU search and rescue sea patrols don come down seriously. In addition, many NGOs don have to stop deir search and rescue missions for de Mediterranean as a result of legal and administrative obstacles and accusation say dem dey hepp smugglers. Dis mean say dem don be major reduction of vessels wey dey available to rescue waka boats wey dey in trouble.

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